Articles Posted in Indiana General Assembly


The “Indiana Smoke Free Air Law,” which was passed last year by the Indiana General Assembly and took effect on July 1, 2012, bans smoking in most Indiana businesses and nonprofit organizations. We thought the General Assembly might reconsider some of the details this year, but that hasn’t happened. Based on our non-scientific observations, it seems that Indiana businesses and nonprofits have not been very diligent about implementing the law, particularly those regarding signs. So we think it’s a good time to review the requirements, or at least some of them.

“Does the smoking ban affect my business?”

Smoking is now prohibited by law in “public places” and “places of employment,” as well as the area within 8 feet of public entrances to either of them. “Public places” and “places of employment” sound as if they encompass a lot, and they do. A public place includes any enclosed area of a structure in which the public is permitted or invited, and a place of employment includes any enclosed area of a structure (excluding a private vehicle) that is a place of employment. Lest we forget, there’s one other category — smoking is also banned in government vehicles being used for governmental purposes.

There are some exceptions, but the bottom line is that the smoking ban affects most businesses and nonprofit organizations in Indiana.

“Okay, my office is covered. What do I have to do?”

  • Not surprisingly, you must inform your employees and prospective employees that smoking is prohibited.
  • You must post conspicuous signs that read “Smoking is Prohibited by State Law,” or something to that effect. The law has a specific requirement that restaurants must have a conspicuous sign at each entrance informing the public that smoking is prohibited in the restaurant.
  • You must also post signs at each entrance (logically, the sign should be outside or at least visible from the outside) stating “State Law Prohibits Smoking Within 8 Feet of this Entrance” or something similar.
  • If someone smokes on the premises anyway, you must ask him or her to refrain, and if he or she refuses to stop, you must have him or her removed from the premises. (Note: Don’t try to do it yourself! In the unlikely event it becomes necessary, call the police.)

“I own a bar. Does the smoking ban REALLY apply to my business?”

It depends. There are some exceptions to the smoking ban, and one of them is for bars and taverns, but you have to meet certain requirements. For example, you may not have any employees under 18, and you must exclude anyone else under 21. There are more exceptions for several other types of places of employment and public places, each subject to particular qualifications or additional requirements.

“Does the law apply to our nonprofit organization?”

Probably. There is an exception that covers some social clubs and fraternal organizations or lodges that are tax exempt under Internal Revenue Code Sections 501(c)(7), (c)(8), or (c)(10), and it’s possible that some other types of nonprofits fit into an exception, but most nonprofits are subject to the smoking ban.

“I have a home office. Is smoking banned there, too?”

Again, it depends. The ban does not apply to a business located in the business owner’s residence, but only if all the people who work there live in the residence. Let’s assume that only you (the owner) and your spouse work in your office. In that case, you’re allowed to smoke, but if you have any employees who don’t live in your home, smoking is prohibited.

“Are there other exceptions?”

Yes. For a complete list see Ind. Code 7.1-5-1-5.

“My facility falls within an exception to the smoking ban, so I’m home free. Right?”

Well, not entirely. There are some other requirements that apply to public places and places of employment in which smoking is permitted. Here’s an interesting one — you have to post signs that state “WARNING: Smoking is allowed in this establishment.” You must also certify to the Indiana Alcohol and Tobacco Commission that your bar qualifies for the exception.

Moreover, even if most of your facility or building is exempted from the ban, smoking is prohibited in halls, elevators, and common areas where people under 18 are permitted or in rooms intended for use by people under 18.

And don’t forget that even if the state law does not ban smoking in your business, it may be prohibited by local no-smoking laws — such as the Indianapolis Ordinance — which are allowed to be more restrictive than the state law.

Other resources

NOTE: This is not a comprehensive analysis of the Indiana Smoke Free Air Law. There are other exceptions and other requirements that may apply to your business or nonprofit (even if it is exempt from the ban itself) that we have not discussed. Here are some other resources:

  • The full text of the statute can be found at Ind. Code 7.1-5-1.
  • Signs that comply with the state law are readily available from a number of suppliers.

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UPDATE, February 19, 2013.
Yesterday, the House Judiciary Committee amended HB1394 to remove the language discussed in this blog post — the changes to IC 23-18-6-7 that would have expressly provided that a charging order is the only right that the creditor of an LLC member has with respect to the LLC. It appears that Indiana will remain in the fourth category of states listed in the article — those in which there is no reverse veil piercing for multi-member LLCs, with the issue remaining unsettled with respect to single member LLCs. The most recent version of the bill is available here.

In my last post, I discussed HB 1394, a bill pending in the Indiana General Assembly that would make several amendments to the statute that governs Indiana limited liability companies. One of the most important changes is to strengthen the so-called “charging order” protection, which I’ll describe shortly after a brief review of some attributes of LLCs and corporations.

Recall that corporations and LLCs both have liability shields that protect the owners of the company (for a corporation, the shareholders; for a limited liability company, the members) from being personally liable for the company’s obligations. That liability shield (whether it’s for a corporation or LLC) is sometimes called a corporate veil, and in some circumstances courts will ignore the shield, or pierce the corporate veil, to allow creditors of the business to reach the personal assets of the owners. I’ve previously discussed precautions that LLC members can take to keep that from happening.

When a court allows a creditor of the business to reach the personal assets of the owners, it’s sometimes called “inside-out veil piercing,” which implies there might be something else called “outside-in veil piercing.” And there is.

Consider what happens when a shareholder of a corporation owes money to a creditor. The shareholder’s stock is just like any other asset, like a bank account, a house, or a car. And just like any other asset (well, most other assets), the stock is subject to foreclosure, which effectively means the creditor takes over ownership. The creditor, now the new shareholder, receives all the rights associated with the stock, including the economic rights (i.e., the right to receive dividends, if there are any) and the non-economic rights (including the right to vote in elections of the board of directors). That’s called “outside-in veil piercing” or sometimes “reverse veil piercing.” If the creditor takes over enough shares of stock, he or she can gain control of the company. Even if the creditor does not gain control of the company, the other shareholders may suddenly find themselves co-owners with someone they don’t even know, maybe even with someone they despise. For large, publicly traded companies with millions of shareholders, that’s no big deal. For family businesses or other businesses with only a few shareholders, it can be a very big deal.

The area of reverse veil piercing is one in which LLCs differ tremendously from corporations, at least in some states, and it is one of the reasons that I advise clients to set up LLC’s far more often than I advise them to set up corporations. When it comes to the rights of a member’s creditors, many states, including Indiana, treat the member’s economic rights and non-economic rights separately. For example, IC 23-18-6-7 allows a court to issue an order requiring a limited liability company to pay to a member’s creditors anything that the LLC would otherwise be required to pay to the member. That’s called a charging order, and it’s something like an order for the garnishment of wages, applied to a member’s right to receive LLC distributions.

The question is whether a charging order is the only remedy a creditor has against the member’s rights. If so, there is no reverse veil piercing, and a member’s creditors cannot take over control of the business or gain a seat at the table with the other members. I believe there are currently five categories of states:

  1. Those in which reverse veil piercing is not allowed for LLCs.
  2. Those in which reverse veil piercing is allowed for single-member LLCs but not for multi-member LLCs.
  3. Those in which reverse veil piercing is allowed for both single-member LLCs and multi-member LLCs (essentially treating LLCs the same as corporations).
  4. Those in which there is no reverse veil piercing for multi-member LLCs but for which the law is unresolved for single-member LLCs.
  5. Those in which the law is unresolved for reverse veil piercing both single-member and multi-member LLCs.

Until fairly recently, Indiana was in the fourth group of states. As I’ve discussed elsewhere, a 2005 decision of the Indiana Court of Appeals, Brant v. Krilich, held that there is no reverse veil-piercing for multi-member LLCs, but apparently leaving the question open for single-member LLCs.

HB 1394 would add a provision to IC 23-18-6-7 expressly stating that a charging order is the exclusive remedy for a judgment creditor of a member and that the creditor has no right to foreclose on the member’s interest. Because the bill makes no distinction between single-member and multi-member LLCs, it appears that HB 1394 would place Indiana in the first category of states — those for which reverse veil piercing is not allowed for either single-member or multi-member LLCs.
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Statutes governing limited liability companies, or LLCs, vary considerably from state to state. In our opinion, Indiana’s statute is already among the best in the country, and a bill introduced in the 2013 session of the Indiana General Assembly proposes several changes that would make it even better for small business owners, particularly family-owned businesses. Among other things, HB 1394, introduced by Rep. Greg Steuerwald (R Avon) would:

Later posts will discuss these proposed changes in more detail, including a few suggestions for possible revisions to the bill that would make it even better. In the meantime, however, small business owners in Indiana may want to contact their state representatives and senators urging them to support HB 1394.
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